A look at the what, why, when and how of craniotomy, with some links for further reading.
Man has been drilling holes in the heads of his fellow man for thousands of years and there is evidence to show that the early surgeons had considerable skill.
Not only did their subjects survive, but the outcome of this procedure done by the Incas was considerably better than in craniotomies done in Europe thousands of years later.
More recently in the late 20th century there have been cases in the UK of individuals drilling holes in their own heads. They maintain that doing so, favourably alters movement of blood through the brain and improves brain functions, a finding not supported in the literature.